In decision theory, an analysis made to intentionally favor alternative solutions when compared to the solution adjudged as best. The alternatives are deliberately weighted to make them look better. If the adjudged-best solution still remains the best, its position as the likely choice is further strengthened. 'A fortiori' is Latin for, 'even more so' or 'more conclusively.'
Hotel or restaurant meal consisting of several differently priced dishes which are cooked usually when ordered from a menu. In comparison, a 'per head' (buffet or table d'hôte meal) has a fixed number of ready made dishes at a fixed total price per person. French for, by the bill of fare.
Conclusion or judgment based on induction. It begins with the observed facts and phenomenon, and infers their underlying causes. Latin for, what comes after. See also a priori.
Conclusion or judgment based on deduction, a hypothesis based on conclusions or judgments previously assumed. Latin for, from what comes before. See also a posteriori.
Alternative term for ATA Carnet.
Primary distribution channel through which only first quality goods are sold.
Alternative term for letter size paper.
International Standards Organization (ISO) standard-size typing paper, 210 MM wide and 297 MM tall (about 8 1/4 x 11 3/4 inch), used in Europe, and rest of the world, except the US and some neighboring countries where 'letter-size' paper (8 1/2 x 11 inch) is used. See also paper sizes.
Computer system that provides three essential components of a secure online financial transaction in electronic commerce: (1) Authentication, (2) Authorization, and (3) Accounting. See also commerce server and TACACS.
A number on a check, part of a code developed and used by the American Bankers Association. The transit number is used to aid the banks when clearing the checks, by signifying the financial institution as well as the Federal Reserve Bank used by that institution. This number is found near the upper right corner, and appears in the form of a fraction with a numerator and denominator. The numerator indicates the region where the bank is located, as well as the branch number. The denominator consists of the first four numbers of the routing number found at the bottom left of the check.
Property voluntarily disclaimed, relinquished, or surrendered by its owner(s).
General: Voluntary disclaim of a right or interest (without transferring it to anyone else) in a property, accompanied by a clear act of abandoning that property. Such acts include continuous lack of use and/or maintenance, and failure to pay property taxes. The abandoned property may then be claimed by an occupier (see adverse possession) or may be appropriated by the state. However, obligations (debts, liens, taxes) associated with a property are not discharged when it is abandoned and remain the liability of the owner.
Analysis of a range of items which have different levels of significance and should be handled or controlled differently. It is a form of Pareto analysis in which the items (such as activities, customers, documents, inventory items, sales territories) are grouped into three categories (A, B, and C) in order of their estimated importance. 'A' items are very important, 'B' items are important, 'C' items are marginally important. For example, the best customers (typically 20 percent of the total number of customers) who yield highest revenue (typically 80 percent of the total revenue) are given the 'A' rating, are usually serviced by the sales manager, and receive most attention. 'B' and 'C' customers warrant progressively less attention and are serviced accordingly.
Inventory control based on a form of Pareto analysis. The inventory items are divided into three categories (A, B, and C), according to a criterion such as revenue generation, turnover, or value. Typically, 'A' items represent 20 percent in terms of quantity and 75 to 80 percent in terms of the value. Also called usage value analysis. See also ABC analysis.
ABnormal END or ABortive END. System crash or other abnormal termination of a computer program caused by memory conflict or some other (usually unidentifiable) glitch.
aid and abet.
HR: Acquired or natural capacity, competence, dexterity, proficiency, talent, etc., that enables an individual to perform a particular act, job, or task successfully at any time. See also aptitude.
Borrower's ability to service a loan from his or her disposable income or cashflow, or the taxpayer's ability to pay the tax. Called 'capacity' in banking, it is a critical factor in obtaining a loan. See also five C's of credit and fixed charge coverage ratio.
Non-biological factor (such as sunlight), material (such as sulfur dioxide), or process (such as hydrolysis) which can affect living or non-living constituents of an ecosystem. Opposite of biotic.
Party capable of meeting its obligation(s) under a contract, as in the phrase "ready, willing, and able.”